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How to talk about science and scientists - session 11

A true scientist lives up to the etymological meaning of this little “one who knows.” Anything scientific is based on facts — observable facts that can be recorded,tested,checked,and verified.
Science, then, deals with human knowledge – as far as it has gone. It has gone very far indeed since the last century or two, when we stopped basing our thinking on guesses, wishes, theories that had no foundation in reality, and concepts of how the world ought to be; and instead began to explore the world as it was, and not only the world but the whole universe. From Galileo,who looked through the first telescope atop a tower in Pisa, Italy, through Pasteur, who watched microbes through a microscope, to Einstein, who deciphered riddles of the universe by means of mathematics, we have at last begun to fill in a few areas of ignorance.
Who are some of the more importrant explorers of knowledge – and by what terms are they known?

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翻译结果
一位真正的科学家不辜负这个小小的“知道的人”的词源含义。 任何科学依据都是事实,即可以记录,测试,检查和验证的可观察事实。
那么,科学就可以处理人类的知识-就目前为止。 自上一两个世纪以来,确实已经走了很远,当我们停止基于猜测,愿望,没有现实基础的理论以及关于世界应该如何发展的概念时,我们就停止了思考。 而是开始探索世界,不仅是世界,还有整个宇宙。 从伽利略(Galileo)看过意大利比萨斜塔顶上的第一架望远镜,再到巴斯德(Pasteur),后者通过显微镜观察微生物,再到爱因斯坦(Einstein),后者通过数学方法破解了宇宙中的谜语,我们终于开始填写 少数领域的无知。
谁是最重要的知识探索者中的哪一位?他们以什么术语被称为?

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